He makes great use not only of syncope dropping of an unstressed vowel within a word and elision dropping of an unstressed vowel at the juncture between words but also of a device almost unique to Donne among English poets—synaloepha speeding up of adjacent vowels at the juncture between words with no actual dropping. Eschewing for the most part classical allusions, these poets turned to the imagery of everyday life and of the new learning in science and philosophy.
When examining the historical development of society, perhaps the most determining factor is education. DeHart Grand Valley State University When examining the historical development of society, perhaps the most determining factor is education. Education has a symbiotic relationship with society in that it is shaped by society as much as it shapes society.
Rather he deliberately presents various concepts of human nature by way of offering a survey of philosophical positions. He “provided a mass of material” (CWE 54), illustrating in a general way the superiority of spiritual over material concerns. Aquinas wanted to understand the true nature of human beings. He includes classical writers and philosophers in it. In the medieval text, the divine would appear in human form. In the Renaissance text, the divine is more likely to be absent. Writers and philosophers of the Renaissance time period expressed their opinions about human nature and human's roles in the universe through their writings. [tags: .
It provides a means by which humans can recall history as well as shape their own. This is why attempting to understand the educational character of a certain time period is important to a better understanding of the history of thought.
John of Salisbury offers us such a glimpse into the intellectual and social climate of the twelfth century through his work, Metalogicon. The Metalogicon was written as an impassioned defense of liberal arts education, pointing to the indispensable role of education in creating virtuous and happy lives.
While it is significant to the medieval development of pedagogy, it also offers insight into the corresponding social and political environment by understanding the reach and limitations of its arguments for education.
The most curious insight comes, as it may seem to us, as a contrast. This is because, despite the significance given to education for a well- functioning society, John also emphasizes that not everyone can or should be educated. This article will examine these two seemingly opposed ideas in their sociohistorical context, but will ultimately argue that these positions are incompatible and incoherent given the potential John of Salisbury believed liberal arts education to have.
The Metalogicon is one of the best twelfth-century sources historians have regarding education during this time in history.
This fact alone makes it noteworthy. During the development of Western education, there is perhaps no time more formative to modern views on education than the Middle Ages. Of the Middle Ages, the twelfth century was particularly influential in the shaping of education, and has even been called the birthplace of Western pedagogy.
Out of this time period emerged the first universities, and while John was writing the Metalogicon, there were unparalleled numbers of students involved in courses and further alongside this, a robust discussion and debate over the best methods of education. However, to appreciate why this is so, it will first be helpful to understand the scholastic environment surrounding the Metalogicon.
The Metalogicon was written in in response to a movement seeking to lessen the emphasis placed on the trivium in education. Traditionally, when universities began, there were seven liberal arts that came to be conceptually divided into the trivium and quadrivium.
The first category, regarded as the trivium, was considered to be an elementary grouping focused on language studies and included grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic. The quadrivium focused on mathmatico-physical disciplines and consisted of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.
Historically, the liberal arts were branches of knowledge taught in order to train the free man, and the division into seven liberal arts was codified in late antiquity and popularized during the Middle Ages. Coin of Cornificius The Cornificians, most likely a pseudonym for this movement attacking the trivium, argued that the weight placed on liberal arts in education was unnecessary.
John of Salisbury fully opposed the Cornifician movement because he thought it would undermine the entire purpose of education. Furthermore, this pursuit of virtue and happiness is what separated humankind from beast, and for that, it was the most important quest a human could take.
The Metalogicon defends liberal education as a necessary and proper instrument, irreplaceable to the ends of social order and progress.
It argues that training in the liberal arts is essential to becoming wise and successful. It is likely John was born to a poor family, although very little is known about his actual childhood circumstances apart from his own writings.
He pursued higher education in Paris and studied under some of the greatest masters in the twelfth century for almost twelve years. While in Paris, John studied grammar, logic, and theology extensively between and He was educated with the traditional literary and dialectical trivium, and even had some teaching experience of his own.
In addition to this, he had years of experience in governmental and diplomatic affairs.
With this impressive academic and political career, he was able to write his two major works, the Metalogicon and the Policraticus, from personal experience. Befittingly, his books are filled with examples rather than a philosophical examination of the topics discussed.
By the time John was writing, he was well qualified to express views on education.The allegorical meaning usually deals with moral truth or a generalization about human existence colloquialisms give a work a conversational, familiar tone. Colloquial expressions in writing include local or regional dialects autobiography, biography, diaries, criticism, essays, and journalistic, political, scientific, and nature.
Generally, early theories of human nature are religious, modern theories of our nature respond to science or are full-fledged scientific theories, and theories about the future consider how science and technology will transform our nature.
On the other hand, though also writing for an educated audience with a serious interest in divinity, Donne wears his scholarship more easily and can still be read by the general student without. Renaissance Philosophy. The Renaissance, that is, the period that extends roughly from the middle of the fourteenth century to the beginning of the seventeen century, was a time of intense, all-encompassing, and, in many ways, distinctive philosophical activity.
Niccolo Machiavelli was a Philosopher/writer and politician and was most famous for his influences to politics during the Renaissance. Machiavelli wrote various guides of prin cipals for leaders to follow, but basically Machiavelli gave politicians and rulers the license to behave badly as his advice was to be ruthless and forceful.
Niccolo was a humanist Renaissance writer because of his focus on human nature, rather than religion. Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli, a Florentine Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer.3/5(2).