Paper conservation terms

All subscription requests must include the full real name or they will not be approved by the moderator. To post a message send to: The goal of this project is to combine, in one place, all the known bookbinding and book conservation terminology, in as many languages as possible.

Paper conservation terms

Many institutions have never experienced an active mold outbreak on a collection-wide level. Dealing with such an outbreak can be overwhelming at first—but there are basic and tested methods to help an institution recover.

To best prevent an outbreak and to know how to begin recovery, it is important to understand the basic life-cycle of mold, the steps needed to stop mold growth, the equipment needed to protect staff, and the steps to salvage collections.

There are overknown species of fungi. Active mold growth on raspberries Mold propagates by disseminating large numbers of spores, which become airborne, travel to new locations, and germinate — under the right conditions.


While it is actively growing and reproducing, mold excretes digestive enzymes that alter, weaken, and stain paper, cloth, or leather. It is important to note that mold can be dangerous to people with allergies and immune problems and, in some cases, can pose a major health hazard.

Paper conservation terms

If favorable conditions are not present, the spores remain inactive dormantand in this state they can do little damage. However, be aware that mold in its dormant or inactive state can and will reactivate if the environment changes and conditions become favorable.

The most important factor in mold growth is the presence of moisture. This is most commonly found in the air as relative humidity RHbut can also be the natural moisture content of the object on which the mold is growing.

In general, the higher the RH, the more readily mold will grow. If collections are wet as the result of a water disaster, this increases their susceptibility on both fronts: Other factors that will contribute to mold growth in the presence of moisture are high temperatures, stagnant air, and the location of storage.

High temperatures, in conjunction with high relative humidity, will increase the rate of germination and growth of mold spores, a cycle which can then occur in as little as 24 hours.

Glossary on Paper Conservation in six languages - Goethe-Institut Hong Kong

Stagnant air allows airborne spores to settle on collections. Due to this same lack of air circulation, these collections may already have increased moisture content. The resulting combination provides spores with a perfect environment for germination.

Collections stored in basements or other uncontrolled spaces are most likely to be impacted by a mold outbreak.

Definitions of Conservation Terminology

Basements tend to be damp with poor air circulation, and the likelihood that exterior walls will be cold and condense or leak is high. Collections are also more likely to be stored on the floor where rising damp is less likely to be noticed and can cause serious problems.

Mold spores, active or dormant, are everywhere. We cannot and should not attempt to eliminate all of them. They exist in every room, on every object in a collection, and on every person entering the building. The only dependable prevention strategies are: Dust and dirt are a source of spores, both active and dormant, so housing collections in protective enclosures whenever possible helps keep them free of dust.

Photograph courttesy of Julie Mosbo.Environmental Responsibility. Energy Management. Century Pulp & Paper takes every effort to reduce its carbon footprint and impact to the environment.

Rear board upon which paper art is mounted, made of wood, wood pulp or other acidic materials which will seriously damage art paper.

Acid Burn: Alteration to a work on paper (usually darkening – resembling burned paper) caused by lignin containing acidic materials in proximity to, or in contact with the art.

Paper conservation terms

The International Union for Conservation of Nature is the global authority on the status of the natural world and the measures needed to safeguard it. Accept. We use cookies to improve your website experience. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy.

By closing this message, you are consenting to our use of cookies. Conservation Scientist: A professional scientist whose primary focus is the application of specialized knowledge and skills to support the activities of conservation in accordance with an ethical code such as the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice.

The conservation and restoration of books, manuscripts, documents and ephemera is an activity dedicated to the preservation and protection of items of historical and personal value made primarily from paper, parchment, and applied to cultural heritage conservation activities are generally undertaken by a conservator-restorer..

Conservation Terminology Early paper was handmade from plant fibers such as flax, hemp, and cotton: The presence of lignin in wood pulp paper causes acid to degrade the cellulosewhich causes the paper to become unstable and discolored over time.
Term Paper on Water Conservation: Water conservation is the process of the rational use of the water resources with the purpose to save them.
Century Pulp and Paper Wheat starch has a higher linear fraction than rice starch and therefore exhibits greater retrogration than rice starch paste TAPPI; Whistler, Vol. Preparation All recipes use distilled or deionized water.

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Conservation and restoration of books, manuscripts, documents and ephemera - Wikipedia