From this it is also plain that none of the moral virtues arises in us by nature; for nothing that exists by nature can form a habit contrary to its nature. For instance the stone which by nature moves downwards cannot be habituated to move upwards, not even if one tries to train it by throwing it up ten thousand times; nor can fire be habituated to move downwards, nor can anything else that by nature behaves in one way be trained to behave in another. Neither by nature, then, nor contrary to nature do the virtues arise in us; rather we are adapted by nature to receive them, and are made perfect by habit.
The Nicomachean Ethics is very often abbreviated "NE", or "EN", and books and chapters are generally referred Nicomachean ethics book 2 by Roman and Arabic numerals, respectively, along with corresponding Bekker numbers. Background[ edit ] In many ways this work parallels Aristotle's Eudemian Ethicswhich has only eight books, and the two works can be fruitfully compared.
Opinions about the relationship between the two works—for example, which was written first, and which originally contained the three common books, are divided. Many believe that these works were not put into their current form by Aristotle himself, but by an editor sometime later.
If there are several virtues then the best and most complete or perfect of them will be the happiest one. An excellent human will be a person good at living life, who does it well and beautifully kalos. Aristotle says that such a person would also be a serious spoudaios human being, in the same sense of "serious" that one contrasts serious harpists with other harpists.
He also asserts as part of this starting point that virtue for a human must involve reason in thought and speech logosas this is an aspect an ergon, literally meaning a task or work of human living.
He describes a sequence of necessary steps to achieve this: First, righteous actions, often done under the influence of teachers, allow the development of the right habits. These in turn can allow the development of a good stable character in which the habits are voluntary, and this in turn gives a chance of achieving eudaimonia.
Aristotle does not however equate character with habit ethos in Greek, with a short "e" because real character involves conscious choice, unlike habit.
Instead of being habit, character is a hexis like health or knowledge, meaning it is a stable disposition that must be pursued and maintained with some effort.
However, good habits are described as a precondition for good character. As he proceeds, he describes how the highest types of praise, so the highest types of virtue, imply having all the virtues of character at once, and these in turn imply not just good character, but a kind of wisdom.
Being of "great soul" magnanimitythe virtue where someone would be truly deserving of the highest praise and have a correct attitude towards the honor this may involve. This is the first case mentioned, and it is mentioned within the initial discussion of practical examples of virtues and vices at b Book IV.
This style of building up a picture wherein it becomes clear that praiseworthy virtues in their highest form, even virtues like courage, seem to require intellectual virtue, is a theme of discussion Aristotle chooses to associate in the Nicomachean Ethics with Socrates, and indeed it is an approach we find portrayed in the Socratic dialogues of Plato.
But achieving this supreme condition is inseparable from achieving all the virtues of character, or "moral virtues".
As Burger points out p. As part of this, Aristotle considers common opinions along with the opinions of poets and philosophers. Who should study ethics, and how[ edit ] Concerning accuracy and whether ethics can be treated in an objective way, Aristotle points out that the "things that are beautiful and just, about which politics investigates, involve great disagreement and inconsistency, so that they are thought to belong only to convention and not to nature ".
For this reason Aristotle claims it is important not to demand too much precision, like the demonstrations we would demand from a mathematician, but rather to treat the beautiful and the just as "things that are so for the most part.I’ve started reading The Nicomachean Ethics, which is based on lecture notes from Aristotle that were assembled by his son (then translated to English by, in this case, David Ross)..
I’ve decided to do this review a little differently: I’ll share my impressions as I read along.
Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle, part of the Internet Classics Archive. Nicomachean Ethics. pp Order Description Our study of Greece and the Ancient World indicates that the ancient Greeks sought to make sense of the “chaos” of Continue reading "book report;BOOK. 'Happiness, then, is the best, noblest, and most pleasant thing in the world.'In the Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle's guiding question is: what is the best thing for a human being? His answer is happiness, but he means, not something we feel, but rather a specially good kind of life. When will my book be dispatched from your warehouse?
The book is divided into short sections of a paragraph or a few paragraphs each, advancing some particular. aristotle 39 s nicomachean ethics focus philosophical library series.
Online Books Database Doc ID 0a68d0. Online Books Database. How To Think About Weird Things Critical Thinking For A New Age Philosophy Religion. A summary of Book II in Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics.
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Nicomachean Ethics and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
Nicomachean Ethics, I. Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Book I. i Every art and every investigation, and likewise Book I Happiness.
cc. i–iii. Introduction: the nature of the subject. c. i. Every Practical Science has an End. every practical pursuit or undertaking, seems to aim at some good: hence it has been well said that the 2 Good is That at which all things aim.
Nicomachean Ethics By Aristotle Written B.C.E Book I: 1 Every art and every inquiry, and similarly every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good; and for this reason the good has rightly been declared to be that at which all things aim.
First, the book is devoted entirely to Book VI of the Nicomachean Ethics.
(Of course, the same is Book V of the Eudemian Ethics, since it is one of the three books common to both works on ethics.) Aristotle's concern with practical wisdom is his moral epistemology where we learn how he thinks about knowing right from wrong.5/5(1).