The 4 most important types of exercise Strengthening, stretching, balance, and aerobic exercises will keep you active, mobile, and feeling great. January, Exercise is key to good health.
Introduction The fitness industry is currently experiencing a surge of interest and growth in high intensity interval training HIIT.
This method of training involves repeated bouts of high intensity efforts that range from 5 seconds to 8 minutes followed by recovery periods of varying lengths of time.
Billat points out that as early as Hannes Kolehmainen, famous Finish Olympic long-distance runner, was employing interval training in his workouts.
Blood is pumped away from the heart through arteries and returns to the heart through veins. The major artery of the body is the aorta and the major veins of the body are the vena cavae. We will write a custom essay sample on Heart and Cardiac Muscle specifically for you. Breathing rate is measured in breaths per minute, heart rate in beats per minute, and carbon dioxide in the time it takes bromothymol blue to change color. Carbon dioxide production can be measured by breathing through a straw into a solution of. Our normal heart rate is an example of our body in homeostasis and any sort of change, or stimulus, can alter it. Exercise, adrenaline in the blood, and a low blood pH are all stimuli Essay on Heart Rate and Exercise compounds called methylxanthines and can block a receptor on the surface of heart muscle cells for adenosine.
As the knowledge of HIIT increased, exercise scientists demonstrated that this type of exercise not only provides performance benefits for athletes and improves the health of recreational exercisers, but it may also be a suitable alternative to endurance training, or continuous aerobic exercise.
To improve cardiovascular fitness the belief has always been to increase the volume of exercise, whether it's longer runs, bike rides, or extended time on an aerobic machine e. The breadth of current research has revealed that HIIT improves numerous physiological parameters, often in less time when measured against high volume continuous exercise Daussin et al.
Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss and compare the cardiovascular, skeletal muscle, and metabolic adaptations to HIIT versus continuous endurance exercise.
Continuous aerobic training is defined as exercise e. Additionally, research examples of HIIT and continuous endurance training workouts are included in this article.
Basic Reponses and Adaptations of Aerobic Training Before comparing HIIT and continuous endurance training, a brief review of the cardiovascular responses and adaptations to chronic aerobic exercise is warranted, because it is central to both programs.
During aerobic exercise the performance of the heart is based on heart rate, the amount of blood pumped per beat stroke volumeand heart contractility, or the forcefulness of each heart contraction. Combined, these variables increase blood flow and oxygen supply to meet the demands of the exercising muscles.
The contraction of the skeletal muscle also increases venous blood flow return to the heart, which increases ventricle blood filling called the preload. This boosted preload contributes to the heart's enhanced stroke volume during exercise, which is a major determinant of aerobic performance Joyner and Coyle, Heart muscle structure adaptations are common with progressively increasing amounts of endurance training.
These adaptations include thickening of the heart muscle and increased left ventricle size, which contribute to improved heart function during exercise. Consistent bouts of endurance exercise such as minutes of continuous running or cycling performed days per week leads to several other cardiovascular adaptations including the following: Increased cardiac muscle mass 2.
Increased stroke volume 3. Increased disposal of metabolic wastes 4.
Increased oxidative enzymes and efficiency 5. Faster diffusion rates of oxygen and fuel into muscle 6. Increased left ventricle dilation and chamber volume 7.
Increased carbohydrate sparing thus greater use for fat as fuel 8. Increase in mitochondria energy factory of cell 9.
Increase in cell regulatory mechanisms of metabolism Increased fat oxidation Cardiovascular Adaptations Recent work shows that the cardiovascular adaptations to HIIT are similar to and in some cases superior to those of continuous endurance training Helgerud et al.
Additional research by Slordahl et al. Maximal oxygen consumption VO2max is considered the uppermost ability of the body to consume, distribute and utilize oxygen for energy production. It is commonly called maximal aerobic capacity and is a good predictor of exercise performance. Improvements in cardiovascular function will increase one's VO2max.
Improving cardiovascular function and increasing VO2max are major goals of patients that suffer from cardiovascular disease.Heart-rate training reflects the fact that the harder you run, cycle, Nordic ski or do other forms of exercise, the higher your heart rate is.
The ideal heart-rate range depends on the. Therefore, with fewer impulses movements and heart rate become slower (Carlson). With this procedure, similar to the one to be carried out, it is expected the gammarus (a crustacean like that of the Daphnia) will have a decreased heart rate in ethanol as well.5/5(1).
Bradycardia is an abnormally slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute. A normal heartbeat is between 60 and beats per minute. Here's what happens during a normal heartbeat: The electrical signal that starts a heartbeat comes from the heart's sinus node, the natural pacemaker located in the upper portion of the right atrium.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulates the functions of our internal organs (the viscera) such as the heart, stomach and intestines. The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it also controls some of the muscles within the body.
The heart rate of male is slightly higher than the heart rate of a female because males have more muscle throughout the body. Therefore, they have more muscle that needs oxygen, meaning the heart needs to pump more oxygenated blood to the muscle. There is no difference between the recovery rates.
The most obvious signs of emotional arousal involve changes in the activity of the visceral motor (autonomic) system (see Chapter 21).
Thus, increases or decreases in heart rate, cutaneous blood flow (blushing or turning pale), piloerection, sweating, and gastrointestinal motility .