Mongolian tribes during the Khitan Liao dynasty — Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. Inthe Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens overthrew the Liao dynasty and attempted to gain control over former Liao territory in Mongolia. In the s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings, successfully resisted the Khamag Mongol confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khangreat-grandfather of Genghis Khan.
The Mongols ruled with a strong sense of justice, summed up in their Yasa code and emphasized ability over lineage.
The Mongol Empire brought peace, stability, and unity to large tracts of the known world and practiced religious tolerance to a remarkable degree at a time when conformity to religious doctrine was rigidly enforced in much of Europe.
One of the more successful tactics employed by the Mongols was to wipe out urban populations that had refused to surrender; in the invasion Mongol expansion Kievan Rus'almost all major cities were destroyed; but if they chose to submit, the people were spared and treated leniently.
In addition to intimidation tactics, the rapid expansion of the Empire was facilitated by military hardiness especially during bitterly cold wintersmilitary skill, meritocracy, and discipline.
Subotai, in particular, among the Mongol commanders, viewed winter as the best Mongol expansion for war—while less hardy people hid from the elements, the Mongols were able to use frozen lakes and rivers as highways for their horsemen, a strategy he used with great effect in Russia.
The Mongol Empire had a lasting impact, unifying large regions, some of which such as eastern and western Russia and the western parts of China remain unified today, albeit under different leadership.
The Mongols themselves were assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and many of these descendants adopted local religions —for example, the western Khanates adopted Islamlargely under Sufi influence. The influence of the Mongol Empire may prove to be even more direct  as scientists identify a Y-chromosomal lineage present in about 8 percent of the men Mongol expansion a large region of Asia or about 0.
The paper suggests that the pattern of variation within the lineage is consistent with a hypothesis that it originated in Mongolia about 1, years ago. Such a spread would be too rapid to have occurred by diffusion, and must therefore be the result of selection.
The scientists propose that the lineage is carried by likely male line descendants of Genghis Khanand that it has spread through social selection. In addition to the Khanates and other descendants, the Mughal royal family of India also descended from Genghis Khan: Babur 's mother was a descendant, whereas his father was directly descended from Timur Tamerlane.
At the time of Genghis Khan's death inthe empire was divided among his four sons, with his third son as the supreme Khan.
By the s, the khanates were in a state of fracture and had lost the order brought to them by Genghis Khan.
Formation Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. Genghis Khanthrough political manipulation and military might, united the nomadic, perpetually rivaled Mongol -Turkic tribes under his rule by He quickly came into conflict with the Jin empire of the Jurchen and the Western Xia in northern China.
Under the provocation of the Muslim Khwarezmid Empire, he moved into Central Asia as well, devastating Transoxiana and eastern Persia, then raiding into Kievan Rus' a predecessor state of RussiaBelarusand Ukraine and the Caucasus. While engaged in a final war against the Western Xia, Genghis fell ill and died.
Before dying, Genghis Khan divided his empire among his sons and immediate family, but as custom made clear, it remained the joint property of the entire imperial family who, along with the Mongol aristocracy, constituted the ruling class. Major events in the early Mongol Empire The Mongols began operations against the Western Xia, which comprised much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet.
This campaign lasted until with the Western Xia ruler submitting to Genghis Khan. During this period, the Uyghur Turks also submitted peacefully to the Mongols and became valued administrators throughout the empire. After a great quriltai, or meeting, Genghis Khan led his armies against the Jin Dynasty, which ruled northern China.
The execution of Mongol envoys by the Khwarezmian Shah Muhammad sets in motion the first Mongol westward thrust. While the campaign in northern China was still in progress, the Mongols waged a war in central Asia and destroyed the Khwarezmid Empire.
One notable feature was that the campaign was launched from several directions at once.
In addition, it was notable for special units assigned by Genghis Khan personally to find and kill Ala al-Din Muhammad II, the Khwarazmshah who fled from them, and ultimately ended up hiding on an island in the Caspian Sea. The Mongols gain a decisive victory at the Battle of the Kalka River, the first engagement between the Mongols and the East Slavic warriors.
Invasion of the Western Xia, being the second battle with the Western Xia. Organization Military setup The Mongol -Turkic military organization was simple, but effective. It was based on an old tradition of the steppe, which was a decimal system known in Iranian cultures since Achaemenid Persia: The army was built up from squads of ten men each, called an arban; ten arbans constituted a company of a hundred, called a jaghun; ten jaghuns made a regiment of a thousand, called mingghan; and ten mingghans would then constitute a regiment of ten thousand tumenwhich is the equivalent of a modern division.Hungary: Geographical and historical treatment of Hungary, including maps and statistics as well as a survey of its people, economy, and government.
Under Mongke, however, the Mongols continued their expansion in the Middle East, as well as attempting to conquer the Song Chinese. Mongke Khan died in while campaigning against the Song, and once more the Mongol Empire needed a new head.
China - The end of Mongol rule: The basic dilemma of Mongol rule in China—the Mongols’ inability to achieve a durable identification with Chinese civilian institutions and to modify the military and colonialist character of their rule—became more apparent under Kublai’s successors and reached a maximum under Togon-temür, the last Yuan ruler.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning "Great Mongol Nation;" (–) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² at its peak, with an estimated population of over million people.
The Mongol Empire was founded by Genghis Khan in. The Mongol expansion throughout the Asia, from around to , helped bring political stability and re-establish the Silk Road vis-à-vis Karakorum. With rare exceptions, such as Marco Polo or such Christian ambassadors as William of Rubruck, few Europeans traveled the entire length of the Silk Road.
Russia and Its Islamic World: From the Mongol Conquest to The Syrian Military Intervention [Robert Service] on timberdesignmag.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Russia has long played an influential part in its world of Islam, and not all the dimensions are as widely understood as they ought to be.
In Russia and Its Islamic World.