Gaskins says that he thought of "PowerPoint", based on the product's goal of "empowering" individual presenters, and sent that name to the lawyers for clearance, while all the documentation was hastily revised. I said, "Bill, I think we really ought to do this;" and Bill said, "No, no, no, no, no, that's just a feature of Microsoft Word, just put it into Word. And I kept saying, "Bill, no, it's not just a feature of Microsoft Word, it's a whole genre of how people do these presentations. When PowerPoint was released by Forethought, its initial press was favorable; the Wall Street Journal reported on early reactions:
Exporting[ edit ] Many manufacturing firms began their global expansion as exporters and only later switched to another mode for serving a foreign market.
Exports also include distribution of information sent as email, an email attachment, fax or in a telephone conversation. While restrictive business practices sometimes have a similar effect, they are not usually regarded as trade barriers. The most common foreign trade barriers are government-imposed measures and policies that restrict, prevent, or impede the international exchange of goods and services.
Nuclear Suppliers Group limits trade in nuclear weapons and associated goods 45 countries participate. Missile Technology Control Regime limits trade in the means of delivering weapons of mass destruction 35 countries The Wassenaar Arrangement limits trade in conventional arms and technological developments 40 countries.
Tariffs[ edit ] A tariff is a tax placed on a specific good or set of goods exported from or imported to a country, creating an economic barrier to trade. Some failing industries receive a protection with an effect similar to subsidies ; tariffs reduce the industry's incentives to produce goods quicker, cheaper, and more efficiently.
The third reason for a tariff involves addressing the issue of dumping. Dumping involves a country producing highly excessive amounts of goods and dumping the goods on another country at prices that are "too low", for example, pricing the good lower in the export market than in the domestic market of the country of origin.
In dumping the producer sells the product at a price that returns no profit, or even amounts to a loss. Tariffs can create tension between countries. Vessel at Altenwerder Container Terminal Hamburg Overview[ edit ] Advantages of exporting[ edit ] Exporting has two distinct advantages.
First, it avoids the often substantial cost of establishing manufacturing operations in the host country. The locational advantages of a particular market are a combination of market potential and investment risk.
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Internationalization advantages are the benefits of retaining a core competence within the company and threading it though the value chain rather than to licenseoutsourceor sell it. In relation to the eclectic paradigmcompanies that have low levels of ownership advantages do not enter foreign markets.
If the company and its products are equipped with ownership advantage and internalization advantage, they enter through low-risk modes such as exporting. Exporting requires significantly lower level of investment than other modes of international expansion, such as FDI.
The lower risk of export typically results in a lower rate of return on sales than possible though other modes of international business. In other words, the usual return on export sales may not be tremendous, but neither is the risk. Exporting allows managers to exercise operation control but does not provide them the option to exercise as much marketing control.
An exporter usually resides far from the end consumer and often enlists various intermediaries to manage marketing activities. After two straight months of contraction, exports from India rose by Exporting from the firm's home base may not be appropriate if lower-cost locations for manufacturing the product can be found abroad.
It may be preferable to manufacture where conditions are most favorable to value creation, and to export to the rest of the world from that location.
One way to fix this, is to manufacture bulk products regionally. The lack of knowledge of trade regulationscultural differences, different languages and foreign-exchange situations, as well as the strain of resources and staff, interact like a block for exporting.
Indeed, there are some SMEs which are exporting, but nearly two-thirds of them sell to only one foreign market. In the literature, export barriers are divided into four large categories:October 5/ Viper incoming The Taiwanese Air Force will soon be able to fly the first batch of upgraded Fs.
The first four planes to be delivered are currently undergoing ground-testing at Taiwan’s state-owned Aerospace Industrial Development Corp. Taiwan is currently in the process of upgrading its fleet of F A/B jets to the Viper configuration. Search the world's information, including webpages, images, videos and more.
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