Then philosophy migrated from every direction to Athens itself, at the center, the wealthiest commercial power and the most famous democracy of the time [ note ]. Socrates, although uninterested in wealth himself, nevertheless was a creature of the marketplace, where there were always people to meet and where he could, in effect, bargain over definitions rather than over prices. Similarly, although Socrates avoided participation in democratic politics, it is hard to imagine his idiosyncratic individualism, and the uncompromising self-assertion of his defense speech, without either wealth or birth to justify his privileges, occurring in any other political context. If a commercial democracy like Athens provided the social and intellectual context that fostered the development of philosophy, we might expect that philosophy would not occur in the kind of Greek city that was neither commercial nor democratic.
The arguments in the two essays overlap a great deal.
In fact, The Open Society began as a chapter for Poverty. Yet there is a difference in emphasis. The Open Society, a much longer and, according to Popper, a more important work, included in-depth discussion of historicism and the methods of the social sciences.
But it also featured an inquiry into the psychological and historical origins of totalitarianism, which he located in the nexus of a set of appealing but, he argued, false ideas. Open versus Closed Societies According to Popper, totalitarianism was not unique to the 20th century. But reactionary forces were unnerved by the instability and rapid social change that an open society had unleashed.
Socrates was indicted on charges of corrupting the youth and introducing new gods. In contrast, the individualism, freedom and personal responsibility that open societies necessarily engender leave many feeling isolated and anxious, but this anxiety, Popper said, must be born if we are to enjoy the greater benefits of living in an open society: Popper charged that Plato emerged as the philosophical champion of the closed society and in the process laid the groundwork for totalitarianism.
Betraying the open and critical temper of his mentor Socrates, in his Republic Plato devised an elaborate system that would arrest all political and social change and turn philosophy into an enforcer, rather than a challenger, of authority.
It would also reverse the tide of individualism and egalitarianism that had emerged in democratic Athens, establishing a hierarchical system in which the freedom and rights of the individual would be sacrificed to the collective needs of society.
Spartan society focused almost exclusively on two goals: Toward these ends, the Spartan constitution sought to create a hive-like, martial society that always favored the needs of the collective over the individual and required a near total control over its citizenry.
This included a primitive eugenics, in which newborn infants deemed insufficiently vigorous were tossed into a pit of water. Spartan males judged healthy enough to merit life were separated from their families at a young age and provided an education consisting mainly of military training.
The training produced fearsome warriors who were indifferent to suffering, submissive to authority, and unwaveringly loyal to the city. Fighting for the city was an honor granted solely to the male citizenry, while the degrading toil of cultivating the land was the lot reserved to an enslaved tribe of fellow Greeks, the helots.
Rigid censorship was imposed on the citizenry, as well as laws that strictly limited contact with foreigners. Under this system, Sparta became a dominant military power in ancient Greece, but, unsurprisingly, made no significant contributions to the arts and sciences. It was no coincidence, he said, that the Nazis and other modern-day totalitarians were also inspired by the Spartans.
These ideas were holism, essentialism, and historicism. Holism may be defined as the view that adequate understanding of certain kinds of entities requires understanding them as a whole. This is often held to be true for biological and social systems, for example, an organism, an ecosystem, an economy, or a culture.
For instance, some philosophers argue that human consciousness is an emergent phenomenon whose properties cannot be explained solely by the properties of the physical components nerve cells, neurotransmitters, and so forth that comprise the human brain.
Similarly, those who advocate a holistic approach to social inquiry argue that social entities cannot be reduced to the properties of the individuals that comprise them. That is, they reject methodological individualism and support methodological holism, as Popper called it.
According to Popper, Plato believed that a just society required individuals to sacrifice their needs to the interests of the state. Popper saw this as profoundly dangerous. In fact, he said, the view that some collective social entity—be it, for example, a city, a state, society, a nation, or a race—has needs that are prior and superior to the needs of actual living persons is a central ethical tenet of all totalitarian systems, whether ancient or modern.
Nazis, for instance, emphasized the needs of the Aryan race to justify their brutal policies, whereas communists in the Soviet Union spoke of class aims and interests as the motor of history to which the individual must bend. The needs of the race or class superseded the needs of individuals.
In contrast, Popper held, members of an open society see the state and other social institutions as human designed, subject to rational scrutiny, and always serving the interests of individuals—and never the other way around.
According to Plato, understanding of any kind of thing—for example, a bed, a triangle, a human being, or a city—requires understanding what Plato called its Form.
The Forms are timeless, unchanging and perfect exemplars of sensible things found in our world.The Origin of Philosophy: The Attributes of Mythic/ Mythopoeic Thought.
The pioneering work on this subject was The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man, An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East by Henri Frankfort, H.A. Frankfort, John A.
|Karl Popper: Political Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||Enjoy the Famous Daily An evil of civilization Slavery enters human history with civilization.|
|Readings & Flowcharts - The Flow of History||They became dotted across the Mediterranean world, with the most active colony-founding city, Miletusof the Ionian Leaguespawning ninety colonies stretching throughout the Mediterranean Seafrom the shores of the Black Sea and Anatolia modern Turkey in the east, to the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula in the west, as well as several colonies on the Libyan coast of northern Africa from the late 9th to the 5th centuries BC.|
|National and regional variations||The Dalai Lama has said:|
|An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.||At the end of the fourth millennium BC, Crete was a rural agricultural society, whose people existed on self-sufficient, subsistence farming. Yet by the early second millennium BC an incredible transformation had taken place.|
|Minoans and Phoenicians Paper||Gothic Revivalc. The date of its beginning is not easy to pinpoint, for, even when there was no particular liking for Gothic, conservatism and local building practices had conditioned its use as the style for churches and collegiate buildings.|
Wilson, Thorkild Jacobsen, and William A. Irwin (University of Chicago Press, , -- also once issued by Penguin as Before Philosophy). HISTORY OF SLAVERY including An evil of civilization, Slaves in Babylon, Slaves in Greece, Slaves in Rome, Slaves in the Middle Ages, Portuguese slave trade, The triangular trade, The abolitionist movement, The issue of slavery, Emancipation Proclamation.
The University of the State of New York REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY Tuesday, August 16, — to p.m., only Student Name _____ School Name _____. The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. Karl Popper: Political Philosophy. Among philosophers, Karl Popper () is best known for his contributions to the philosophy of science and epistemology. Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Bonds between a colony and its metropolis remained often close, and took specific forms. However, unlike in the period of European colonialism during the early and late modern era, ancient colonies were usually sovereign and self .