The Mass was an inspiring service led by Father Moody. The formal presentations ran smoothly and both our and College Captains spoke admirably. I hope all families enjoyed the opportunity to share the experience with their child and then have the chance to join teachers and friends for supper. As already communicated by Carissa Lock VCE Coordinator and Karina Dunne Year 12 Coordinatorstudents need to be at the College at least 30 minutes before the exam published reading time to ensure smooth entry into the exam venues.
Enabling environments Introduction Enabling environments for climate-smart agriculture CSA are the framework conditions that facilitate and support the adoption of climate-smart technologies and practices.
They include policies, institutional arrangements, stakeholder involvement and gender considerations, infrastructure, insurance schemes, as well as access to weather information and advisory services. An enabling environment may provide the laws, regulations and incentives, which assures that the reorientation and transformation towards climate-smart agriculture proceeds effectively and sustainably.
It helps build Cafs notes groups capacity at all levels and reduces the risks that deter farmers from investing in new technologies and practices. Experience has shown that investing in the enabling environment is essential for implementing CSA at larger scales.
Index-based insurance Introduction Small-scale farmers and pastoralists in low-income countries are often trapped in poverty because they are unable to make investments in improved agricultural practices due to weather-related risks.
Agricultural insurance, an attractive approach to managing such risks, normally relies on direct measurement of the loss or damage suffered by each and every farmer. However, field loss assessment is costly and time consuming, particularly where there are a large number of small-scale farmers or pastoralists who can ill afford the inevitable delay in payments Greatrex et al.
The payouts can be made quickly and with less administrative costs and lower premiums than is typical for conventional crop insurance. Typical features of rainfall-based index insurance for crops are IFAD b: A trigger weather measurement is set e. A lump sum or an incremental payment is made e.
A limit of the measured parameter is set e. The period of insurance is stated in the contract and coincides with the crop growth period; possibly divided into phases, with each phase having its own trigger, increment and limit. Contribution to CSA Productivity: Index insurance, often coupled with access to credit, allows farmers to take additional risks and to invest in improved practices that increase productivity and food securityeven in a situation of adverse weather conditions.
Adaptation through short-term climate risk management: In many parts of the world, rainfall is very variable both in total seasonal amounts and distribution patterns. Under such conditions, farmers inevitably experience the risk of livestock loss, crop yield reduction or crop failure.
Adaptation through longer term climate risk management: Climate change projections suggest that in many regions, rainfall amounts are likely to decline and rainfall variability to increase.
In such regions, index insurance will become an increasingly important adaptation strategy, but premiums may also have to increase. This will depend on the degree to which insured farmers are able to invest in improved production practices which either enhance carbon sequestration or reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions.
Scaling up index insurance for smallholder farmers: Recent evidence and insights. A few common features appear to have contributed to recent progress within these case studies: Evidence from these case studies can inform the ongoing debate about the viability of scaling up index-based insurance for vulnerable smallholder farmers in the developing world.
The rapid progress observed in recent years suggests that index insurance has the potential to benefit smallholder farmers at a meaningful scale, and suggests the need to reassess arguments that lack of demand and practical implementation challenges prevent index-based insurance from being a useful tool to reduce rural poverty.
Weather Index-based Insurance in Agricultural Development: This technical guide translates the findings and experience to date into practical decision-making steps for IFAD and WFP country programme management staff and other donors interested in promoting this risk mitigation tool.
Index-based weather insurance for developing countries: A review of evidence and a set of propositions for up-scaling. Ferdi Working Paper No.SARDAR SAROVAR PROJECT (SSP) AN OVERVIEW. Compiled by Patrick McCully, IRN May 25, Contents: Location Dam Dimensions Associated Infrastructure Dam Bureaucracy.
CAFS HSC Core 2 Groups in Context.
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