The assessments selected by individuals or administrators vary depending on their personal beliefs regarding the most important criteria when considering career choices, as well as the unique needs of the individual considering a career decision. Some common points of variance are: Methodology - some assessments are quantitative in nature and precisely measure key attributes believed to influence an individuals potential success and satisfaction with a career.
Job analysis Job analysis encompasses a number of different methods. By contrast, a worker-oriented job analysis involves an examination of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics KSAOs required to successfully perform the work.
Information obtained from job analyses are used for many purposes, including the creation of job-relevant selection procedures, performance appraisals and the criteria they require, and the development of training programs. Personnel recruitment and selection[ edit ] Main article: Personnel recruitment processes include developing job announcements, placing ads, defining key qualifications for applicants, and screening out unqualified applicants.
Personnel selection is the systematic process of hiring and promoting personnel. Personnel selection systems employ evidence-based practices to determine the most qualified candidates. Personnel selection involves both the newly hired and individuals who can be promoted from within the organization.
Common selection tools include ability tests e.
Personnel selection procedures are usually validated, i. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission 's Uniform guidelines  are also influential in guiding personnel selection decisions.
A meta-analysis of selection methods found that general mental ability was the best overall predictor of job performance and attainment in training. Performance appraisal and Performance management Performance appraisal or performance evaluation is the process in which an individual's or a group's work behaviors and outcomes are assessed against managers' and others' expectations for the job.
Performance management is the process of providing performance feedback relative to expectations, and information relevant to improvement e.
Performance management may also include documenting and tracking performance information for organizational evaluation purposes.
Individual assessment and Psychometrics Individual assessment involves the measurement of individual differences. With candidates for employment, individual assessment is often part of the personnel selection process.
These assessments can include written tests, aptitude tests, physical tests, psycho-motor tests, personality testsintegrity and reliability tests, work samples, simulationsand assessment centres. Early in the 20th century Arthur Kornhauser examined the impact on productivity of hiring mentally unstable workers.
Training and training evaluation[ edit ] Main article: Training Training involves the systematic teaching of skills, concepts, or attitudes that results in improved performance in another environment. Evidence indicates that training is often effective, and that it succeeds in terms of higher net sales and gross profitability per employee.
Training programs often include formative evaluations to assess the effect of the training as the training proceeds. Learning outcomes can be organized into three broad categories: Skill-based training aims to impart procedural knowledge e. Affective training concerns teaching individuals to develop specific attitudes or beliefs that predispose trainees to behave a certain way e.
The analysis identifies the training needs of different departments or subunits.
An organizational analysis also takes into account the climate of the organization and its subunits. For example, if a climate for safety is emphasized throughout the organization or in subunits of the organization e. With organizations increasingly trying to identify "core competencies" that are required for all jobs, task analysis can also include an assessment of competencies.
Employee needs can be assessed using a variety of methods that identify weaknesses that training can address. Motivation in the workplace[ edit ] Main article: Motivation is generally thought of as a theoretical construct that fuels behavior.
An incentive is an anticipated reward that is thought to incline a person to behave a certain way. Studying its influence on behavior, it must be examined together with ability and environmental influences. Because of motivation's role in influencing workplace behavior and performance, many organizations structure the work environment to encourage productive behaviors and discourage unproductive behaviors.What Is a Psychologist and What Types Are There?
Definition, Overview, and Career Information About Psychologists.
South is a place where students discover and strengthen their passions, find their career paths, and form connections that result in lifelong relationships. Law Career Paths Job Profiles Videos How to get started; Banking, Finance & Accountancy Career Paths Job Profiles Videos How to get started; Engineering; IT & Technology; As you progress in your career, you may move into a senior educational psychologist position or you may wish to specialise in a niche area of educational psychology.
Watch a video profile of psychologists. Get detailed information about psychology careers. Find out what you need to do to prepare for a career as a psychologist. Job Descriptions and Careers, Career and Job Opportunities, Career Search, and Career Choices and Profiles» Health & Medicine Psychologist Job Description, Career as a Psychologist, Salary, Employment - Definition and Nature of the Work, Education and Training Requirements, Getting the Job.
Author: Dick Bolles. No, they're not really "tests." People like to call them that, but it is a misnomer, because there are no right or wrong answers, as there would be with, say, a math test.