The world will consequently face growing scarcities of such vital renewable resources as cropland, fresh water, and forests. Thomas Homer-Dixon argues in this sobering book that these environmental scarcities will have profound social consequences--contributing to insurrections, ethnic clashes, urban unrest, and other forms of civil violence, especially in the developing world. Homer-Dixon synthesizes work from a wide range of international research projects to develop a detailed model of the sources of environmental scarcity.
World Population Awareness Why Population Matters Having one fewer child is the most effective way an individual would have to fight climate change. The next best actions are selling your car, avoiding long flights, and eating a vegetarian diet, according to a study published in Environmental Research Letters.
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|JSTOR: Access Check||Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Largely as a result, scarcities of renewable resources will increase sharply.|
|Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases - GSDRC||This article from International Security reports on the impacts of environmental change, population growth and unequal distribution of resources. Environmental scarcities are already contributing to violent conflict in the developing world.|
These four actions reduce emissions many times more than things like recycling, using low energy light bulbs or drying washing on a line. Carbon emissions must fall to two tons of CO2 per person by to avoid severe global warming, but in the US and Australia emissions are currently 16 tons per person and in the UK seven tons.
Having one fewer child equates to a reduction of 58 tons of CO2 for each year of a parent's life. Getting rid of a car saved 2.
The figure was calculated by totaling up the emissions of the child and all their descendants, then dividing this total by the parent's lifespan. But we can't ignore the climate effect our lifestyle actually has," said Nicholas.
Like a doctor who sees the patient is in poor health and might not like the message 'smoking is bad for you', we are forced to confront the fact that current emission levels are really bad for the planet and human society.
The savings from switching to an electric car depend on how green electricity generation is, meaning big savings can be made in Australia but the savings in Belgium are six times lower. Switching your home energy supplier to a green energy company also varied, depending on whether the green energy displaces fossil fuel energy or not.
Nicholas said the low-impact actions, such as recycling, were still worth doing: But they are more of a beginning than an end. They are certainly not sufficient to tackle the scale of the climate challenge that we face. But in some ways it will just reinforce the suspicion of the political right that the threat of climate change is simply a cover for reducing people's freedom to live as they want.
Emissions reduction needs to start now. Have Fewer Children July 12,Guardian From data covering up tothe latest United Nation's World Population Prospects report shows that Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania are among the 33 countries whose population is projected to increase at least five-fold by The growing population will exacerbate problems of ill health, poverty, environmental degradation, unemployment and declining agricultural productivity.
Africa's population is currently estimated to be 1. This requires re-alignment of policies, processes and systems and sharing of resources for coordinated actions.
Changing human habitation patterns, overgrazing, bio piracy, deforestation, pollution, unsustainable exploitation of natural resources and introduction of invasive as well as alien species are some of the changing environmental characteristics that are associated with extremely negative impacts of climate change.
United Nations Environment Programme Unep executive director Christopher Cox says heavy metals deposits discharged from industries into water bodies including Lake Victoria pose a health hazards to the populace who consume contaminated fish.
Experts also warned that huge chunks of forest cover have been transformed into farms leaving most land in the region bare.
Poor farming methods lead to the deposition of nitrogen and phosphate fertilisers into the waters, one reason which has been blamed for the mushrooming of hyacinth and decline of fish in Lake Victoria.
The EAC, once endowed with natural resources, now struggles to sustain water supply, food security and agricultural productivity. Other than health, tourism and livestock production are also threatened, risking sources livelihoods.
Depletion of natural resources is to blame for poor health indicators and high levels of poverty, which is further compounded by the high dependent population ratio. The average life expectancy at birth is 57 years for the region.
Diseases such as tuberculosis malaria, typhoid and bilharzia are widespread while malnutrition is rife among children. Access to healthcare services is hampered by inadequate and inaccessible medical facilities.
A large number of children in East Africa often die due to starvation, malnutrition, diarrheal diseases and flooding, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report. Nutritional status is still a big challenge with prevalence of low birth weight being a leading cause of neonatal mortality.
This is as high as 7. Moderate to severe stunting is highest in Burundi at The effects of climate change are already being felt by people in East Africa.
In Kenya the ongoing drought has been declared a national disaster. Observable effects of climate change on water resources in East Africa include change in rainfall patterns, receding or drying up of rivers and flooding that has led to loss of life and destruction of property East Africa, worsening poverty conditions.
Glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro are disappearing and several rivers are now drying up.
Women spend days looking for food and water hence cannot engage in any other meaningful economic activities. Since early 90s, individual countries have made several attempts to control population including limiting the number of children to not more than three, keeping girls in schools to reduce the number of fertility years and step up family planning.
Adoption of family planning services more than half a century ago has not helped much. Kenya, for instance, was the first sub-Saharan African country to adopt a national family planning programme in early s.
The slow uptake of the family planning means that there are unmet needs, especially for rural women and teenage pregnancies.Gizewski, P. & Homer-Dixon, T. (). Environmental scarcity and violent conflict: The case of Pakistan (Occasional Paper.
Environmental scarcity and violent conflict: The case of Pakistan (Occasional Paper. Environmental scarcities are already contributing to violent conflict in the developing world. There are early signs of an upsurge in violence in the coming decades that will be induced or aggravated by scarcity.
THOMAS F. HOMER-DIXON, JEFFREY H. BOUTWELL and GEORGE W. RATHJENS are co-directors of the project on Environmental Change and Acute Conflict, which is jointly sponsored by the University of Toronto and the American Academy of . Thomas Homer-Dixon argues in this sobering book that these environmental scarcities will have profound social consequences--contributing to insurrections, ethnic clashes, urban unrest, and other forms of civil violence, especially in the developing world.
Portions of this article have been drawn from Thomas Homer-Dixon, Jeffrey Boutwell, and George Rathjens, ”Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict,” Scientific American, February ; and from Homer-Dixon, ”Environmental Scarcity and Global Security” Headline Series (New York: Foreign Policy Association, ).
The causal relationship between environmental scarcities - the scarcity of renewable resources - and the outbreak of violent conflict is complex. Environmental scarcity emerges within a political, social economic, and ecological context and interacts with many of these contextual factors to contribute to violence.