Another 4 billion hectares of forest are used by humans to differing degrees, whereas, away from land, global fisheries are used very intensively, often beyond capacity 1. To meet projected growth in human population and per capita food demand, historical increases in agricultural production will have to continue, eventually doubling current production e. Agriculture is also a major economic, social, and cultural activity, and it provides a wide range of ecosystem services.
Effects of global warming The projected effects for the environment and for civilization are numerous and varied.
The main effect is an increasing global average temperature. The average surface temperature could increase by 3 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit approximately 1.
Potential effects include sea level rise of to mm 0. Some, like the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineersworry that mitigation efforts will largely fail.
Given that greenhouse gas levels are already elevated, the lag of decades between emissions and some impacts, and the significant economic and political challenges of success, the IPCC group points out that it is uncertain how much climate change will be mitigated.
Doing so depends on such factors as wealth, technology, education, infrastructure, access to resources, management capabilities, acceptance of the existence of climate change and the consequent need for action, and sociopolitical will.
Byhowever, it was still judged likely that there would be significant climate change impacts. This was judged to be the case even with aggressive mitigation and significantly enhanced adaptive capacity. The IPCC group also pointed out that climate change adaptation measures can reinforce and be reinforced by efforts to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty.
Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. August See also: The other tradeoff is with climate change impacts. In practice, however, the actual tradeoffs are debatable.
Economistsusing cost-benefit analysishave attempted to calculate an "optimal" balance of the costs and benefits between climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. Also, deciding what "optimal" is depends on value judgements made by the economist doing the study Azar, Another type of analysis is based on a risk -based approach to the problem.
It has been argued that adaptation could play an important role in climate policybut not in an explicit trade-off against mitigation.
This estimate has been critiqued by some scientists who argues that the UNFCCC estimate underestimates the cost of adaptation to climate change by a factor of 2 or 3. The main point being that there is a conflict between the OECD states budget deficit cuts, the need to help developing countries adapt to develop sustainably and the need to ensure that funding does not come from cutting aid to other important Millennium Development Goals.
International aid mechanisms[ edit ] As of [update]the aggregate of current climate change adaptation programs will not raise enough money to fund adaptation to climate change. This fund was established in The actual amount raised will depend on the carbon price. There are several other climate change adaptation finance proposals, most of which employ official development assistance or ODA.
It has even been argued that international development through the sustainable development goals, is essential for a long-term solution to climate change . On the other hand, climate change threatens to exacerbate or stall progress on fixing some of these pre-existing problems.
Advocates have thus proposed integrating climate change adaptation into poverty reduction programs.Change Thinking is a community of seasoned change management professionals who want to better serve those navigating their way through today’s turbulence by raising the level of their game and that of the field of change execution.
When children go to a different school, it usually takes them a while to adapt. She has adapted herself to college life quite easily.
The camera has been adapted for underwater use. The clock was adapted to run on batteries. The movie was adapted from the book of the same title. adapting the movie for television. A sudden, unexpected event happens that forces us to change how we work, to adapt the way we think of our career aspiration and our life.
A change in the workplace policies or practices, a change in the relationship we had with our boss or our co-workers or a shock to the overall business from a competitor or other outside forces. Adapting Cities for Climate Change: The Role of The Green Infrastructure. Part of ASCCUE.
Built Environment, Vol 3, No 1, pages Personal lives change as people get older, so do jobs, careers and organizations. However, human beings, by nature, do tend to resent change and resist it strongly. Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming (also known as "climate change" or "anthropogenic climate change"), that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Even if emissions are stabilized relatively soon, global warming and its effects should last many years, and adaptation.